Many nations, including the UK and the US, created juvenile justice systems to punish juveniles in more lenient, rehabilitative ways. Therapy is often offered and sentences are shorter. However, both nations have begun to change their systems to focus more on retribution and deterrence, meaning juveniles are now punished harshly. This is because of the rising number of juvenile offenders, which suggest the failure of the current policies. However, an increase also means there is potential for overcrowding in juvenile detention. Is this change just, or undeserved?
Abrams, Douglas. "Reforming Juvenile Delinquency Treatment to Enhance Rehabilitation,." Oregon Law Review (2005). Lexis-Nexis. Web.Bishop, Donna. "Juvenile Offenders in the Adult Criminal Justice System." Crime and Justice 27 (2000). Jstor. WebBranigan, Tania, "Howard revives 'prison works' message" The Guardian, 8 February 2005, The Center for Child and Family Policy; "Adolescent O? enders and the Line Between the Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems"; Duke University (2007) Falls, Margaret. "Retribution, Reciprocity, and Respect for Persons" Law and Philosophy, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Apr., 1987), pp. 25-51 Published by: Springer Stable URL: Green, David, "Prison works. SO why won't we admit it?" The Times, 18 July 2008,Gruber, Staci; "Neurobiologcy and the Law: A role in juvenile justice?"; Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law (2006); Hirstein, W., & Sifferd, K. "The legal self: Executive processes and legal theory, Consciousness and Cognition" (2010), doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.10.007Kant, Immanuel. Universal Practical Philosophy, in Lectures in Ethics 55Poythress, Norman, et. al. "The Competence-Related Abilities of Adolescent Defendants in Criminal Court." Law and Human Behavior, pp. 75-92Rachels, James. "Punishment and Desert." Redlich, AD. Taking Responsibility for an Act Not Committed: The Influence of Age and Suggestibility. Law and Human behavior, Vol. 27, No.2, April 2003.Reiman, Jeffrey H. "Justice, Civilization, and the Death Penalty: Answering van den Haag," Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 14, No. 2. (Spring, 1985), pp. 115-148.Rhodes, Kristen; "The Criminal Prosecution of Juveniles: A Philosophical Reappraisal of Adolescent Agency"; Gettysburg College (2008); Ritter, Malcolm. "Experts Link Teen Brains' Immaturity, Juvenile Crime - USATODAY.com." News, Travel, Weather, Entertainment, Sports, Technology, U.S. & World - USATODAY.com. 2 Dec. 2007. Web. 12 Dec. 2010. Singer, Simon and McDowall, David. "Criminalizing Delinquency: The Deterrent Effects of the New York Juvenile Offender LawBlackwell Publishing.Steinberg, Laurence and Scott, Elizabeth. "Less Guilty by Reason of Adolescence". Temple University and University of Virginia School of Law. December 2003 American Psychologist Vol. 58, No. 12Supreme Court of Missouri. MO Juvenile Offender Recidivism 2009 Statewide Juvenile Court Report. September 2009. Timothy, Mark. "Juvenile Recidivism 2008." IDOC (2008). Print.Washington, S.D., et. al. (2010). Developmental changes in functional connectivity between anterior and posterior nodes of the default-mode network. Society for Neuroscience. Nov 14, 2010. [See email for explanation of "plateau"]Weireb, Lloyd. Desert, Punishment, and Criminal Responsibility Source: Law and Contemporary Problems, Vol. 49, No. 3, Responsibility (Summer, 1986), pp.47-80Published by: Duke University School of LawStable URL: Yahya, Moin A. Deterring Roper's Juveniles: Using a Law and Economics Approach to Show that the Logic of Roper Implies that Juveniles Require the Death Penalty More Than Adults. Dickinson School of Law, Penn State Law Review. Summer 2006.