Debate ID: 
<p><a href="http://">Bajoria, Jayshree and Assaad, Ragui (2011), &ldquo;Demographics of Arab Protests&rdquo;, Council on Foreign Relations,&nbsp;[Accessed June 20, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">BBC (2007), &ldquo;China, Russia deny weapons breach&rdquo;,&nbsp;[Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">BBC (2010), &ldquo;Burma&#39;s leaders annul Suu Kyi&#39;s 1990 poll win&rdquo;,&nbsp;[Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="http://">Bromley, Mark (2007), &ldquo;United Nations Arms Embargoes: Their Impact on Arms Flows and Target Behaviour. Case study: Haiti, 1993&ndash;94&rdquo;, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute,&nbsp;[accessed June 7, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Carpenter, Ted and Preble, Christopher (2006), &ldquo;North Korean Sanctions: A Cruel Mirage&rdquo;, The CATO Institute, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Chapman, Terrence and Reiter, Dan (2004), &ldquo;The United Nations Security Council and the Rally Around the Flag Effect&rdquo;, Emory University Political Science Department. [Accessed June 20, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Colvin, Jake and Cox, Simon (2007), &ldquo;Are Economic Sanctions Good Foreign Policy?&rdquo;, Council on Foreign Relations, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Eland, Ivan (2006), &ldquo;Economic Coercion Is Not an Effective Foreign Policy Tool&rdquo;, Independent Institute, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Foer, Franklin (1996), &ldquo;Economic Sanctions&rdquo;,, [Accessed June 7, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Gilboy, George (2008), &ldquo;Political and Social Reform in China: Alive and Walking&rdquo;, Washington Quarterly,&nbsp;[Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Government Accountability Office (2007), &ldquo;ECONOMIC SANCTIONS: Agencies Face Competing Priorities in Enforcing the U.S. Embargo on Cuba&rdquo;,&nbsp;[Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Heritage Foundation (1997), &ldquo;A User&#39;s Guide To Economic Sanctions&rdquo;, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">House of Lords Select Committee on Economic Affairs (2006-2007), &ldquo;The Impact of Economic Sanctions, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Katulis, Brian (2004), &ldquo;Use Free Trade Agreements to Fight Corruption and Promote Democracy&rdquo;, Center for American Progress, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Laverty, Alexander (2007), &ldquo;Impact of Economic and Political Sanctions on Apartheid&rdquo;, The Africa File, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Loyola, Mario (2010), &ldquo;We Don&rsquo;t Need to &lsquo;Get Over the Sanctions Delusion&rsquo;&rdquo;, National Review, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Noland, Marcus (2009), &ldquo;The (Non-) Impact of UN Sanctions on North Korea&rdquo;, The National Bureau of Asian Research, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href=",8599,2052860,00.html">Ramzy, Austin (2011), &ldquo;State Stamps Out Small &#39;Jasmine&#39; Protests in China&rdquo;, Time Magazine, [Accessed June, 10 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Roberts, Dexter (2007), &ldquo;China&#39;s Widening Income Gap&rdquo;, Bloomberg News, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Sharp, Jeb (2011), &ldquo;President Obama Calls for Middle East Reform&rdquo;, PRI&rsquo;s The World, [accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Shirky, Clay (2011), &ldquo;The Political Powers of Social Media&rdquo;, Foreign Affairs, [Accessed June 20, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">The Economist (2011), &ldquo;An aye for sanctions&rdquo;, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">The Telegraph (2011), &ldquo;Aung San Suu Kyi calls for sanctions on Burma to remain&rdquo;, [Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="">Tlili, Moustapha (2011). &ldquo;Tunisia&rsquo;s Revolution Was Led By Secular Middle Class&rdquo;, Daily Star (Lebanon), [Accessed June 20, 2011].</a></p> <p><a href="http://">Wall Street Journal (2009), &ldquo;Facts About Poverty in China Challenge Conventional Wisdom&rdquo;,&nbsp;[Accessed June 10, 2011].</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p>
Further Reading: 
<ul> <li> Imposing Economic Sanctions By: Geoff Simons</li> <li> How Sanctions Work: Lessons from South Africa By: Neta Crawford (Editor)Editor: Audie Klotz</li> <li> Economic Sanctions Reconsidered By: Gary Clyde Hufbauer , Jeffrey J Schott , Kimberly Ann Elliott</li> <li> Targeted sanctions: motivating policy change.(weapons of market destruction: An article from: Harvard International Review Digital) By: William H. Kaempfer , Anton D Lowenberg</li> <li> Burma &ndash; Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity By: Martin Smith</li> <li> Burma &ndash; Political Economy under Military Rule By: Robert Taylor</li> <li> Human Rights in Development &ndash; Yearbook 1998, Global Perspectives and Local Issues By: Hugo Stokke</li> <li> Myanmar/Burma: Inside Challenges, Outside Interests By: Editor: Lex Rieffel</li> </ul>

Sanctions are coercive or punitive actions taken on specific states. Sanctions range from diplomatic sanctions, which often result in the closing of embassies, to military sanctions, which can include intervention, and economic sanctions, which limit sectors of the target state's economy. Trade sanctions are typically imposed by either one country (unilateral) or a group of countries (multilateral) to limit their trade of certain products with another country. Often sanctions are used in international politics in an effort to push countries towards, or away from, specific actions. The use of sanctions is a long standing debate in the field of international politics. It centers on the idea of democracy promotion and whether it is just to punish countries that violate the human rights of their citizens or stray from democratic principles. Further, it is questioned whether sanctions are in fact the best way to ensure democratic development, or if incentives, like free trade, are more effective. It is embodied by the expression "the carrot or the stick;" incentives, or punishment. This case is generic and the arguments are broadly applicable to numerous examples: US policy towards Cuba and Haiti, Iraq and the UN, Myanmar and the West, China and the WTO, South African and the end of apartheid, Turkey and the EU and Pakistan and the Commonwealth. Note the range of scenarios covered in this case.