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This House Would Make Vaccination Compulsory
This House Would Make Vaccination Compulsory
In the United Kingdom, the percentage of children who have had already at least one dose of the measles, mumps and rubella vaccination by their second birthdays was 88.2 % in 2009 – 2010. A much higher number than in 2008-2009 (84.9 %) or in 2003-2004 (79.9 %). The WHO (World Health Organization) suggests, that for a successful protection of the community 95 % of children need to have the jab.
Vaccines represent one of the most successful and effective interventions in medicine and a lucrative business opportunity for many pharmaceutical companies. By vaccinating people, society has been able to eradicate numerous diseases that caused millions of deaths before.
A dramatic example is smallpox, which was responsible for some of the most formidable epidemics of humankind. In 1967 it was the cause of 2 million deaths; a decade later it was totally eradicated from the planet by a concerted global vaccination program. Many countries have thus made it compulsory for people to be vaccinated against various diseases.
As of 2009 children in the US, Australia, Spain and Greece must have proof of vaccination before entering the public school system, although it is becoming easier in many states for parents to gain exemptions from this requirement. In the UK there is no such requirement (currently).
Prior to a vaccine for polio, between 13,000 and 20,000 cases were reported in the USA annually. In 1988, the World Health Organization decided to try and eradicate polio worldwide with vaccination, and as of today, the disease has been removed from the USA, Western Pacific and Europe. Only four countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, India and Pakistan) are endemic, and there are just 2000 cases reported worldwide annually as of 2009.
But by stopping vaccination before the disease is widely eradicated leaves countries susceptible to future unexpected outbreaks. Another common disease – measles, affected nearly everyone in the United States prior to the vaccination being introduced. Between 1953 and 1963, there were 450 deaths each year from the disease. Currently in the US, three of every 1000 people who contract measles will die, whilst in the developing world, one in 100 will die. It is estimated that 90% of people who are exposed to the virus will get infected if not vaccinated against it. In 1999 according to the WHO, there were 900,000 measles related deaths worldwide. Measles can spread rapidly amongst unvaccinated populations, and if vaccinations were stopped, the WHO estimate there could be 2.7 million measles related deaths worldwide annually.
Type B meningitis was prior to the vaccine the most common form of bacterial meningitis in US infants, with 20,000 annual cases, with one in 600 proving either fatal or leaving the child with some form of disability. Since the vaccine became available in 1987, the number of cases has reduced by 98%, with fewer than ten fatalities a year. These are just a few examples of how vaccines can prevent and eradicate diseases that have caused hundreds of thousands of deaths throughout the past century. Although some may argue that with diseases such as Polio wiped out in most of the world a vaccine is not necessary. However any reduction in the number of people vaccinated against the disease would leave a window of opportunity for the disease to rear its head up once again.
Even though benefits are much greater if everyone is vaccinated than if not, some people choose not to be vaccinated, and have concerns about certain vaccines. Simultaneously the number of people vaccinated rose as did the movements against the notion of compulsory vaccination, such as the society of Anti Vaccinations (1798) and the Anti- Vaccination League (1853).
There should be as few obstacles as possible to such a program in order to save as many lives as possible. Some might argue that, that the government should not be able to force someone to have a needle stuck into them? They might also say that if they wish to take the risk of not having the vaccine that is their choice. However many claim, that because the risks do not just affect them, but the people around them, people should not be allowed to choose vaccines on their own. So, this essentially this debate boils down to personal liberty vs. the good of the entire society.
 Jane Kirby, More Children Having MMR vaccine, 11/30/2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/nov/30/children-mmr-vaccination-increase, accessed 05/25/2011
 Smallpox. World Health Organisation. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/smallpox/en/
 Steven Novella, Should Vaccines Be Compulsary, 06/03/2009, http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/index.php/science-and-medicine/should-vaccines-be-compulsory/, accessed 05/25/2011
 CDC- Meningitis: Questions and Answers. www.cdc.gov/meningitis/about/faq.html
|Points For||Points Against|
|It is the state’s duty to protect its community||Compulsory vaccination violates the individuals’ right to bodily integrity|
|Duty to protect the child||It is a parental right to decide about vaccinations for a child|
|Compulsory vaccines are a financial relief on the health system||Vaccines have severe side effects|
Remember to choose a winning argument!
It is the state’s duty to protect its community
If an age group is protected, that results in a better health conditions for the whole society.
In an industrialized country such as the USA, those choosing exemption from statutorily compulsory vaccination were 35-times more likely to contract measles than vaccinated persons; in developing countries where these viruses are still endemic, the risk would be considerably higher.
Those who wish to opt-out of vaccination (often on behalf of their children, who have no say in the matter) are classic free riders, hoping to benefit from the more responsible behavior of the rest of society. As it is assumed that most of society see it as a responsibility and a duty to protect others.
After a scare about possible side effects of the MMR jab, in 2008 there was a drop in voluntary vaccinations in a part of London (Lewisham). In that part of London only 64.3 % of children were vaccine and in that year the district accounted one third of all south-east London measles cases. Unless there is a 95 % vaccination, there is a great threat to public health of infection outbreaks. It is therefore the role of the state to understand these issues and possible treats and provide a duty of protection and care, in this case, in the form of immunization.
Another example of the need to protect is also given by the example of voluntary vaccination against the flu, because of its impacts on the whole population is given by Pediatric studies: ”In several studies, results indicated that a 100% vaccination rate among health care personnel in acute care settings triggered a 43% decline in risk of influenza among patients. This decrease appeared even higher — 60% — among nursing home patients.”
So by giving up some of the individuals freedoms and the feeling of duty to protection, the community is much more protected and benefits from the vaccination of the community.
 Vaccination Critics & Opponents. http://www.neurodiversity.com/anti_vaccination.html
 BBC News, Experts warn of measles outbreaks, 03/18/2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/7291248.stm, accessed 05/25/2011
A great deal of health care and prevention of diseases is information and an informed decision. The United Kingdom does not have a system of compulsory health care, but disease outbreaks are still prevented due to the voluntary uptake of immunizations. The pediatrician Miriam Fine-Goulden explains: “The risk of contracting these infections is only so low at present because the voluntary uptake of immunizations has been high enough (in most cases) to reduce the chance of contact with those organisms through the process of herd immunity.”
Also it can be argued that measles, mumps and rubella (one of the diseases vaccine against) are far from harmful. They are relatively minor illnesses. Measles causes a rash and high fever. Mumps causes swollen glands, headache and fever. Rubella is usually mild and can go unnoticed.
Just because medical advance has been made in vaccinations it does not mean that we have to be immunized against every little disease known to man. Bearing in mind the cost of such jabs on the heavily burdened NHS, surely it would be better to not make the MMR jab compulsory. This way we keep parents happy and the NHS budget can be stretched further.
Researches also show that alternative approaches towards diseases such as better nutrition, homeopathy, etc. give very positive results. Healthier populations would not need vaccines to fight a disease. High profits that are now reserved only for the pharmaceutical industry would be spread to other areas of the economy, such as agriculture and the service sector, and more people would gain.
 Miriam Fine-Goulden: Should childhood vaccinations be compulsory in the UK ?, University College London, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/opticon1826/archive/issue8/articles/Article_Biomed_Sc_-_Fine-Goulden__Vaccination_Publish.pdf, accessed 05/29/2011
 BBC News, Should the MMR vaccine be compulsory, 03/02/2002, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/talking_point/2088426.stm, accessed 05/29/2011
Duty to protect the child
As article 24 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child states, “State parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to health services.”
Each year millions of children worldwide die of preventable diseases before the age of five.
The argument presented here is that the state needs to protect the child and immunize him or her from preventable diseases as obviously the child does not have the capabilities at this stage to make informed decisions of their own.
The United Nations Right to Liberty and Security of the Person treaty, article 6.2 supports this view - State Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
It is up to the State to decide if a child is to be immunized, as overall it will be the State who would benefit from having the vast majority of its citizens vaccinated, and it will be the State who will have to pay for any treatment needed to treat a preventable disease. Whilst a child’s parents have to a certain degree the right to decide what is best for their child’s future, poor decision making in this area could result in serious medical issues for the nation. In this extremely important area, the State must have authority over the rights of the parent.
 Convention on the Rights of the Child. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm
Compulsory vaccination is an example of the tyranny of the majority even if it is made by a democratic government. And in a community that praises itself as democratic and respectful to wishes of others it is in no way acceptable that the rights of some get abused by the wishes of others.
John Stuart Mill has set philosophical basics: “the majority… the people, consequently, may desire to oppress a part of their number; and precautions are as much needed against this, as against any other abuse of power… In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.
The state (or the majority) can only dictate to the individual is if that individual’s actions adversely affect the collective. Therefore the question is ‘what is the purpose of the vaccination?’ if it is to provide individuals with their own protection then autonomy of decision-making and individual liberty should predominate as guiding principles.
Under these circumstances there can be little justification of any coercion on the part of public health officials, in particular the use of mandatory vaccination legislation. If it is more based upon public harm i.e. the more chance of the virus infecting from one human to another then the less this defense can be used.
 Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London: Longman, Roberts & Green, 1869; Bartleby.com, 1999. www.bartleby.com/130/. 2nd October, 2009, Chapter 1, paragraph 9
 University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, Medical ethics experts identify, address key issues in H1N1 pandemic, FirstScience News 23rd September 2009 http://www.firstscience.com/home/news/breaking-news-all-topics/medical-ethics-experts-identify-address-key-issues-in-h1n1-pandemic-page-3-1_71059.html, accessed 05/29/2011
Compulsory vaccines are a financial relief on the health system
Commonly-used vaccines are a cost-effective and preventive way of promoting health, compared to the treatment of acute or chronic disease. In the U.S. during the year 2001, routine childhood immunizations against seven diseases were estimated to save over $40 billion per birth-year cohort in overall social costs including $10 billion in direct health costs, and the societal benefit-cost ratio for these vaccinations was estimated to be 16.5 billion.
Another aspect is also, that productivity rates remain high and less money is earmarked for social and health transfers because people are healthier. This is also supported by a WHO study, that claims: “We calculate that the average percentage increase in income for the children whose immunization coverage increases through will rise from 0.78 per cent in 2005 to 2.39 per cent by 2020. This equates to an increase in annual earnings per child of $14 by 2020. The total increase in income per year once the vaccinated cohort of children start earning will rise from $410 million in 2005 to $1.34 billion by 2020 (at a cost of $638 million in 2005 and $748 million in 2020).” This study based on economic and health indicators is part of the world immunization program GAVI.
 Wikipedia. Vaccine Controversy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine_controversy
 David Bloom, David Canning and Mark Weston, The value of immunization, World Economics, July – September 2005 http://www.who.int/immunization_supply/financing/value_vaccination_bloom_canning_weston.pdf, accessed 05/28/2011
Vaccines themselves are expensive to develop in the lab and to mass produce for widespread compulsory vaccination programs. In addition to these upfront costs, organizing compulsory vaccination programs across an entire country can be very complicated and expensive. For instance, mechanisms must be set in place to ensure that the program is indeed compulsory, which means establishing a database of those that have and have not received the vaccine.Improve this
Compulsory vaccination violates the individuals’ right to bodily integrity
In most countries and declarations, one of the most basic human rights is the one to bodily integrity. It sets down that you have a right not to have your body or person interfered with. This means that the State may not do anything to harm your body without consent.
The NHS (National Health Service) explains: “You must give your consent (permission) before you receive any type of medical treatment, from a simple blood test to deciding to donate your organs after your death. If you refuse a treatment, your decision must be respected.”
This comes from the principle, that if a person has the capacity to consent to treatment and is making an informed decision (based on pros and cons of the treatment), the decision must be respected. The NHS explains further on: “If you have enough capacity and make a voluntary and informed decision to refuse a treatment, your decision must be respected. This applies even if your decision would result in your death, or the death of your unborn child.”
In the case of vaccination this principle should be also applied. Even though we recognize that children are not able to fully comprehend the consequences a refusal would have, the parents should be there to decide on behalf of children over such decisions. The state has no right to stick a needle into a child just because they see fit doing so. It might be contested that in case of life endangering illnesses, the state should override the individuals’ rights. But rejection of vaccinations is not life endangering. So it is the judgment of the individual that is important and should not under any case be violated, just because someone might get an illness that in today’s modern world is easily curable.
 National Health Service (NHS), Do I have a right to refuse treatment ?, http://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/899.aspx?categoryid=68&subcategoryid=156, accessed 29/05/2011
The problem with this is that those refusing vaccines on account of this effectively violate the same right for other people if, and when, there is an outbreak of the disease against which the vaccine is protecting.Improve this
It is a parental right to decide about vaccinations for a child
Through birth, the child and the parent have a binding agreement that is supported within the society. This agreement involves a set of rights and duties aimed at, and justified by, the welfare of the child. Through that (according to texts from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy): parents owe their children an “open future,” understood as one where they become adults capable of choosing their own conception of the good. As custodian, the parent is under a limited obligation to work and organize his or her life around the welfare and development of the child, for the child's sake. Concomitantly, the parent is endowed with a special kind of authority over the child.
It therefore is the courtesy of a parent to decide what the best possible outcome is for a child. If the parent believes the child will be safer and better off in society without being given vaccine it is the parent’s right to decide not to give vaccination to the child.
Also the American Academy of Pediatrics reports, that refusing the immunization might not put children at risk, as long as they live in a well immunized community and can benefit from the “herd immunity”. They state: “Even in a community with high immunization rates, the risk assumed by an unimmunized child is likely to be greater than the risks associated with immunization. However, the risk remains low, and in most cases the parent who refuses immunizations on behalf of his or her child living in a well-immunized community does not place the child at substantial risk of serious harm.”
 Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/parenthood/, accessed 05/28/2011
 Diekema Douglas, Responding to Parental Refusals of Immunization of Children, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/115/5/1428.full, accessed 05/28/2011
An adult vaccine refusal and a parental vaccine refusal are not the same. Parents do not have absolute right to put their child at a risk even if they themselves are willing to accept such a risk for him or herself.
Minors have a right to be protected against infectious diseases and society has the responsibility to ensure welfare of children who may be harmed by their parents’ decisions.
Counseling should form an integral part of any such legislation, as often it is not conviction but laziness of the parents in taking their child to the clinic for immunization or the parents’ inability to make an informed decision.
Also the state has already protected children in cases, when their functioning later as an adult could be compromised due to parental actions. For instance: in order to promote culturally prescribed norms, parents may seek to remove their child from school, or have their daughter undergo clitoridectomy; yet the state may claim that such a decision violates the parents' trustee relationship on grounds that the state has a compelling interest in securing the full citizenship capacities and rights of each of its citizens. As trustee, the parent has a limited right to exclusivity in determining the child's life over the course of childhood, but this determination is to be aimed at shaping the child into (for instance) a productive citizen and community member. 
The LSU Law center also explains: “The more difficult problem is religious or cultural groups that oppose immunizations. These groups tend to cluster, reducing the effective immunization level in their neighborhoods, schools, and churches. In addition to endangering their own children, such groups pose a substantial risk to the larger community. By providing a reservoir of infection, a cluster of unimmunized persons can defeat the general herd immunity of a community. As these infected persons mix with members of the larger community, they will expose those who are susceptible to contagion.”
As seen not to vaccine children can represent a danger for their future, there should be no ultimate power of parents to prevent vaccine jabs.
Vaccines have severe side effects
Some of the used vaccines may have severe side effects, therefore we should let every individual asses the risk and make choices on his/her own. Besides introducing foreign proteins and even live viruses into the bloodstream, each vaccine has its own preservative, neutralizer and carrying agent, none of which are indigenous to the body. For instance, the triple antigen, DPT, which includes Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus vaccine, contains the following poisons: Formaldehyde, Mercury, and aluminum phosphate, and that's from the Physician's Desk Reference, 1980. The packet insert accompanying the vaccine, lists the following poisons: aluminum potassium sulfate, a mercury derivative called Thimersol and sodium phosphate. The packet insert for the polio vaccine lists monkey kidney cell culture, lactalbumin hydrozylate, antibiotics and calf serum. The packet insert for the MMR vaccine produced by Merck Sharp and Dhome which is for measles, mumps and rubella lists chick embryo and neomycin, which is a mixture of antibiotics.
Evidence also suggests that immunizations damage the immune system itself. By focusing exclusively on increased antibody production, which is only one aspect of the immune process, immunizations isolate dysfunction and allow it to substitute for the entire immune response, because vaccines trick the body so that it will no longer initiate a generalized response. They accomplished what the entire immune system seems to have been evolved to prevent. That is, they place the virus directly into the blood and give it access to the major immune organs and tissues without any obvious way of getting rid of it.
The long-term persistence of viruses and other foreign proteins within the cells of the immune system has been implicated in a number of chronic and degenerative diseases. In 1976 Dr. Robert Simpson of Rutgers university addressed science writers at a seminar of the American Cancer Society, and pointed out the following. "Immunization programs against flu, measles, mumps, polio and so forth may actually be seeding humans with RNA to form latent pro viruses in cells throughout the body. These latent pro viruses could be molecules in search of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinson's disease, and perhaps cancer."
Vaccines may cause a child who is genetically predisposed to have autism. If the trend of increased Thimerosal in vaccinations correlates so well with the trend of increased autistic diagnoses, there is a link. Thimerosal in vaccinations (which means 'contains mercury') causes autism. Too many times has a child been completely healthy, and then a vaccine containing Thimerosal is injected into the child. The child becomes ill, stops responding visually and verbally, and is then diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
 Roger R. Gervais. Understanding the Vaccine Controversy. Natural MAgainse May/June 1996. http://www.naturallifemagazine.com/naturalparenting/vaccines.htm
 Alex Loglia, Global healing center, http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/vaccinations-the-hour-of-the-time.html, accessed 28/05/2011
The argument of “bad vaccines” is a very popular one. However, scientifically seen this arguments is flawed in many aspects.
First of all many of the examples used in arguments suggesting vaccination is dangerous and therefore should not be used, is very old. Many refer to examples from the 60s or 70s, which in medicine is highly flawed as science every few years significantly advances, improves the level of knowledge and reduces possible side effects. And even though many believe in the damages caused by vaccines retrospective studies disprove this point:
Scientists at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health's Center for Infection and Immunity and researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Trinity College Dublin, evaluated bowel tissues from 25 children with autism and GI disturbances and 13 children with GI disturbances alone (controls) by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the presence of measles virus RNA. Samples were analyzed in three laboratories blinded to diagnosis, including one wherein the original findings suggesting a link between measles virus and autism had been reported. 
"Our results are inconsistent with a causal role for MMR vaccine as a trigger or exacerbate of either GI difficulties or autism," states Mady Hornig, associate professor of Epidemiology and director of translational research in the Center for Infection and Immunity in the Mailman School, and co-corresponding author of the study. "The work reported here eliminates the remaining support for the hypothesis that autism with GI complaints is related to MMR vaccine exposure. We found no relationship between the timing of MMR vaccine and the onset of either GI complaints or autism.
Many parents came to believe that vaccines caused their children's autism because the symptoms of autism appeared after the child received a vaccination. On a psychological level, that assumption and connection makes sense; but on a logical level, it is a clear and common fallacy with a fancy Latin name: post hoc ergo propter hoc ("after this, therefore because of it"). They just need someone to blame for the disease of their child.
2. Allergies and vaccines
A recent (2011) study of a German Health Institute concludes that in comparing the occurrence of infections and allergies in vaccinated and unvaccinated children and adolescents. These include bronchitis, eczema, colds, and gastrointestinal infection. The only difference they found is that unvaccinated children and adolescents differ from their vaccinated peers merely in terms of the frequency of vaccine preventable diseases. These include pertussis, mumps, or measles. As expected, the risk of contracting these diseases is substantially lower in vaccinated children and adolescents.
 Science Daily, No connection between Measels, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine and Autism, Study suggests 09/05/2008http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080904145218.htm
Benjamin Radford, Autism and sciences: Why bad Logic Trumps Science, 09/05/2008 http://www.livescience.com/2845-autism-vaccines-bad-logic-trumps-science.html
 Deutsches Aerzteblatt International (2011, March 7). Vaccinated children not at higher risk of infections or allergic diseases, study suggests. ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110304091458.htm, accessed May 28, 2011
1. Jane Kirby, More Children Having MMR vaccine, 11/30/2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/nov/30/children-mmr-vaccination-increase, accessed 05/25/2011
2. Steven Novella, Should Vaccines Be Compulsory, 06/03/2009, http://www.sciencebasedmedicine.org/index.php/science-and-medicine/should-vaccines-be-compulsory/, accessed 05/25/2011
4. Talbot TR. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol., Two medical societies back mandatory flu vaccination for health care workers, published 2010, http://www.pediatricsupersite.com/view.aspx?rid=68173, accessed 05/27/2011
5. Miriam Fine-Goulden: Should childhood vaccinations be compulsory in the UK ?, University College London, http://www.ucl.ac.uk/opticon1826/archive/issue8/articles/Article_Biomed_Sc_-_Fine-Goulden__Vaccination_Publish.pdf, accessed 05/29/2011
6. Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London: Longman, Roberts & Green, 1869; Bartleby.com, 1999. www.bartleby.com/130/. 2nd October, 2009, Chapter 1, paragraph 9
9. David Bloom, David Canning and Mark Weston, The value of immunization, World Economics, July – September 2005 http://www.who.int/immunization_supply/financing/value_vaccination_bloom_canning_weston.pdf, accessed 05/28/2011
12. Diekema Douglas, Responding to Parental Refusals of Immunization of Children, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/115/5/1428.full, accessed 05/28/2011
13. Lahariya C, Mandatory vaccination: is it the future reality ?, Singapore medical journal (editorial) 2008, http://smj.sma.org.sg/4909/4909e1.pdf, accessed 05/25/2011
16. Alex Loglia, Global healing center, http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/vaccinations-the-hour-of-the-time.html, accessed 28/05/2011
18. Benjamin Radford, Autism and sciences: Why bad Logic Trumps Science, 09/05/2008 http://www.livescience.com/2845-autism-vaccines-bad-logic-trumps-science.html
Unknown author / organization info:
3. BBC News, Experts warn of measles outbreaks, 03/18/2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/7291248.stm, accessed 05/25/2011
6. BBC News, Should the MMR vaccine be compulsory, 03/02/2002, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/talking_point/2088426.stm, accessed 05/29/2011
8. University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, Medical ethics experts identify, address key issues in H1N1 pandemic, FirstScience News 23rd September 2009 http://www.firstscience.com/home/news/breaking-news-all-topics/medical-ethics-experts-identify-address-key-issues-in-h1n1-pandemic-page-3-1_71059.html, accessed 05/29/2011
10. National Health Service (NHS), Do I have a right to refuse treatment ?, http://www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/899.aspx?categoryid=68&subcategoryid=156, accessed 29/05/2011
11. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/parenthood/, accessed 05/28/2011
15. Louisiana State University (LSU), Compulsory Immunization, http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/books/lbb/x790.htm, accessed 05/29/2011
17. Science Daily, No connection between Measels, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Vaccine and Autism, Study suggests 09/05/2008http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080904145218.htm, accessed 05/27/2011
19. Deutsches Aerzteblatt International (2011, March 7). Vaccinated children not at higher risk of infections or allergic diseases, study suggests. ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/03/110304091458.htm, accessed May 28, 2011
1. Great article discussing a compulsory vaccination in the UK: Miriam Fine-Goulden - Should Childhood Vaccinations be compulsory in the UK? http://www.ucl.ac.uk/opticon1826/archive/issue8/articles/Article_Biomed_Sc_-_Fine-Goulden__Vaccination_Publish.pdf
2. Overview of vaccines, their use, prevention of diseases: http://www.emro.who.int/sudan/pdf/Vaccines%20and%20vaccination%20requirement%20for%20travellers%20chapter%206.pdf
3. MMR jabs information: http://www.senseaboutscience.org.uk/pdf/MMRPolicyBriefing.pdf
4. Podcast on the debate (Australia): Compulsory immunization? http://www.abc.net.au/local/audio/2009/06/05/2590793.htm
5. Mandatory Immunization Laws and the Role of Medical, Religious and Philosophical Exemptions: http://www.vaccinesafety.edu/exemptreview101503.pdf
6. Example of school mandatory immunization (Jewish day school): http://mysite.verizon.net/bizeg2z8/Teshuvah%20Vaccine%20Policy.pdf
7. Example of a legislative bill on compulsory vaccination (Pakistan): http://www.pildat.org/Publications/publication/LB/PILDATLegislativeBrief11-TheDraftCompulsoryImmunizationBill.pdf
8. Information on how it’s legally possible to avoid immunization in the US: http://www.mercola.com/article/vaccines/legally_avoid_shots.htm
9. Pediatric immunology and vaccination document: http://www.pdfpedia.com/download/21/pediatric-immunology-and-vaccination-pdf.html
10. Opposition to vaccination suggests the book: Wallene James - Immunization: The Reality Behind the Myth - Second Edition, Revised and Updated: http://www.amazon.com/Immunization-Reality-Behind-Revised-Updated/dp/0897893603
11. The vaccine controversy on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine_controversy
12. School Vaccination Requirements: Historical, Social, and Legal Perspective: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Research/PDF/vaccine.pdf
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